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Sukhothai, สุโขทัย Kingdom 1238 - 1448

Sukhothai, สุโขทัย Kingdom 1238 - 1448   Sukhothai, สุโขทัย Kingdom 1238 - 1448

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The Sukhothai, สุโขทัย Kingdom existed from around 1238 till 1448.

Wat Si Sawai Sukhothai, สุโขทัย Historical Park

The Kingdom was one of the early Kingdoms in the area around the city Sukhothai, สุโขทัย in the North of Bangkok, กรุงเทพมหานคร on the River Yom which is an tributary of the Chao Phraya River, แม่น้ำเจ้าพระยา.

 

Wat Si Sawai Sukhothai, สุโขทัย Historical Park

King Pho Khun Sri Indraditya is said to be the founder of the Phra Ruang Dynasty of the Sukhothai, สุโขทัย Kingdom ruling 1249 till 1257. The Sukhothai, สุโขทัย was the capital of the Thai Empire for approximately 140 years. The old capital is now located 12 km outside of New Sukhothai in Tambon Mueang Kao. This location now is in ruins and now set up as a historical park.

Wat Saphan Hin, วัดสะพานหิน - Sukhothai, สุโขทัย Historical Park

Wat Saphan Hin, วัดสะพานหิน - Sukhothai, สุโขทัย Historical Park

Chiang Saen, เชียงแสน in the Northern part of Chiang Rai, เชียงราย Province was established in the early 700s and Mueang Sua known as Luang Prabang, a city located in north central Laos, on the Mekong River. The city of Sukhothai, สุโขทัย was part of the Khmer empire until 1238 when two Thai group leaders namely Pho Khun Pha Muang and Pho Khun Bang Klang Hao declared their independence and established a Thai ruled Kingdom. Pho Khun Bang Klang Hao later became the first King of Sukhothai, สุโขทัย calling himself Pho Khun Si Indraditya. This event traditionally marks the founding of the modern Thai nation although other less well known Thai Kingdoms such as Lanna, ล้านนา Kingdom established itself in the north of Thailand, around the city of Chiang Mai. The Phayao and Chiang Saen Kingdoms were also established around the same time.

Sukhothai, สุโขทัย expanded by forming group alliances with the other Thai Kingdoms whom adopted the Theravada Buddhism, known as the 'Teaching of the Elders' or the 'Ancient Teaching' was set as the state religion with the help of Ceylonese monks.

King Pho Khun Sri Indraditya was succeeded by his son King Pho Khun Ban Muang, who was followed in 1278 by his brother namely King Pho Khun Ramkhamhaeng.

The Thais began to emerge as a dominant force in the region in the 13th century. They gradually declared their independence from existing Khmer and Mon Kingdoms.

The city called by its Kingdom rulers, Sukhothai, สุโขทัย which literally means "Dawn of Happiness". This is often considered the golden period of the Thai history which is an ideal Thai state in a land of plenty governed by paternal and benevolent Kings.

Statue of King Ramkhamhaeng, located in the Sukhothai, สุโขทัย Historical Park

Statue of King Ramkhamhaeng, located in the Sukhothai, สุโขทัย Historical Park

The most famous of whom was the King Ramkamhaeng the Great, พ่อขุนรามคำแหงมหาราช, the third King of the Phra Ruang dynasty.

Ramkhamhaeng, พ่อขุนรามคำแหงมหาราช Stele

In 1350, the mightier state of Ayutthaya, อาณาจักรอยุธยา exerted its influence over the Sukhothai, สุโขทัย Kingdom and became a tributary state of Ayutthaya, อาณาจักรอยุธยา between 1365 and 1378.

Ramkhamhaeng, พ่อขุนรามคำแหงมหาราช is credited with designing the Thai alphabet, อักษรไทย which is traditionally dated from 1283 on the evidence of the controversial Ramkhamhaeng stele which is an inscribed stone allegedly bearing the earliest known Thai writing now in the National Museum in Bangkok, กรุงเทพมหานคร.

This stone was allegedly discovered in 1833 by King Mongkut or Rama IV whom was then still a monk in the Wat Mahathat, วัดมหาธาตุ.

After the death of King Pho Khun Ramkhamhaeng, he was succeeded by his son King Pho Khun Loethai. The variegated Kingdoms, first Uttaradit, อุตรดิตถ์ in the North and then soon after the Laotian Kingdoms of Luang Prabang and Vientiane in Laos liberated themselves from their overlord. In 1319 the Mon Kingdom of the Burmese state to the west broke away. In 1321 Lanna Thai Kingdom was placed by Tak, ตาก in the North of the country, one of the oldest towns under the control of Suriyothai. To the south the powerful city of Suphan Buri, สุพรรณบุรี in central Thailand broke free early in the reign of King Loethai and was quickly condensed to its earlier importance. Meanwhile Ayutthaya, อาณาจักรอยุธยา Kingdom rose in strength and finally in 1378 King Phya Sai Leu Thai or Thammaracha II had to submit to this new power.

In 1412, Ayutthaya, อาณาจักรอยุธยา installed a chief resident and King Thammaracha IV was installed on the throne by the Ayutthaya, อาณาจักรอยุธยา Kingdom. Around 1430 Thammaracha IV moved his capital to Phitsanulok, พิษณุโลก located in the North of Thailand. After his death in 1438 the Kingdom was reduced in status to a mere province of Ayutthaya, อาณาจักรอยุธยา.

 

The Kings of Sukhothai, สุโขทัย Kingdom

King Pho Khun Sri Indraditya - ruling 1249-1257
King Pho Khun Ban Muang - ruling 1257-1277
King Pho Khun Ramkhamhaeng, Ramkhamhaeng the Great - ruling 1277-1317
King Pu Saisongkhram: After Ramkhamheang's death, ruled temporarily in absence of Loethai who was on trip to China. He was not styled Pho Khun.
King Pho Khun Loethai - ruling 1317-1347
King Pho Khun Nguanamthom - ruling 1347
King Phya Lithai or Thammaracha I, พระมหาธรรมราชาที่ I - ruling 1347-1374
King Phya Sai Leu Thai or Thammaracha II - ruling 1374-1399
King Phya Sai Luthai or Thammaracha III - ruling 1399-1419
King Thammaracha IV - ruling 1419-1438

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